These castles varied in size from the massive fortified complex built on the sides and the top of a spur of the Alborz Mountains at Gerdkuh q. Although many of these castles in Persia were taken and demolished by the Mongols, the ruins still give an impression of their immense power. This impressive stronghold remained a military post until Ottoman times and was destroyed only at the beginning of the nineteenth century. Their strategic position, and the skilled use of natural resources, ensured that despite the difficulties of the terrain the residents were well supplied with food and water and able to withstand a prolonged siege of many months, even years. The area chosen for fortification was in a strong and naturally defensive position, and in a terrain sufficiently remote and inaccessible to discourage attacks by their far more numerous Seljuq foe and other enemies. The complex of fortresses within the chosen area were able to support each other in the event of attack and possessed an efficient system of communication, whether by beacon or other means. The chosen area usually contained enough natural material, especially wood and stone, to allow for any construction or reconstruction to be carried out expeditiously and with the minimum labor force. The terrain was self-sufficient in water and food supplies—that is to say there was fertile ground and water near by. It differed from that of the Crusaders, who built strong bases from which they pursued an offensive strategy. As precipitous an approach as possible was important as this avoided the need for extensive outer walls, and a steep angle of slope made it very difficult for an enemy to set up his ballistae or rely on conventional siege tactics such as sapping and mining.
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The Shia structure one of the two noteworthy branches of Islam, the Sunni being the other. As Muslims , the Ismailis insist the central Islamic confirmation of truth, the Shahada, that there is no God however Allah and that Muhammad peace be upon him and his family is His Messenger. Muslims hold this disclosure to be the finish of the message that had been uncovered through different Prophets of the Abrahamic convention before Muhammad, including Abraham, Moses and Jesus, every one of whom Muslims worship as Prophets of Allah.
Progression to Imamat, as indicated by Shia precept and convention, is by method for Nass Designation , it being indisputably the privilege of the Imam of the Time to name his successor from amongst any of his male relatives. Otherworldly constancy to the Imam and adherence to the Shia Imami Ismaili tariqah influence of Islam as per the direction of the Imam of the Time, have caused in the Ismaili Community an ethos of independence, solidarity, and a typical character.
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In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content: Hamdani A Code of Conduct: Ismaili Texts and Translations Series, vol. Al-Hakim became infamous of course as the Fatimid imam-caliph whose reign was marked by seemingly erratic policies affecting minorities, women, and others among his subjects his alleged animosity toward [End Page 93] Christians for example, led to the destruction of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem, then under Fatimid control, which presumably instigated the Crusades.
It is from some of these manuscript copies that Klemm prepared her edition of the text. Paul Walker contributes to this edition not only a wonderfully lucid translation, but also information on the dating of the text itself 23— As Klemm notes, the importance of the Risalah has as much to do with form as with content. It should be noted that the Fatimid empire at its height in the tenth and eleventh centuries was vast, extending from North Africa through Egypt, to the Hijaz and Syria.
It also boasted supervision, through its da
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Velshi hosted The Business News, Canada’s first prime time business news hour. CNN[ edit ] Velshi moved to the U. Reassigned to the main CNN network, he remained a business anchor and reporter posted, initially, to CNN’s early morning program, Daybreak.
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From the beginning, the Shia asserted the right of Ali , cousin of Muhammad , to have both political and spiritual control over the community. This also included his two sons, who were the grandsons of Muhammad through his daughter Fatimah. Both parties could rightfully defend their claims, but due to escalated misunderstandings, the Battle of the Camel was fought and Aisha was defeated but was respectfully escorted to Medina by Ali.
While he was unable to do this, he nonetheless defeated their forces in subsequent battles. The Entrusted Imam is an Imam in the full sense except that the lineage of the Imamate must continue through the Permanent Imam. The idea of “Hadith” or traditions ascribed to the Prophet was not mainstream nor was Hadith criticism. Even the earliest legal texts by Malik b.
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This was the reason why the Qarmatians , the original Seveners, were the Fatimid’s most irreconcilable opponents. Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin born in and died in In , the Abdallah al-Mahdi Billah fourth Da’i announced that he himself was the “Imam of the Time” being also the fourth direct descendant of Muhammad ibn Ismail in the very same dynasty.
The separation of the Zaydi sect. However, there is dispute as to the numbering, as some[ vague ] branches refer to Ali as “first” while others refer to Hasan as the first. Ali numbered as first by the Nizari, but not numbered by the Mustaali born in and died in This was contested by the elder son an-Nizar, who was defeated and died in prison. This term is often incorrectly applied to the “Ismailis” who had separated from the Seveners and gone further on with the succession to the Imamat.
The Tayyibi recognized Imam: Hasan ibn Ali numbered by the Mustaali, not by the Nizari born in and died in This caused a split between his Sevener followers accepting his claim and those Seveners disputing his claim and clinging to Muhammad ibn Ismail as the Imam in occultation.
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The Shia Ismaili Muslims are a community of ethnically and culturally diverse peoples living in over 25 countries around the world, united in their allegiance to His Highness Prince Karim Aga Khan (known to the Ismailis as Mawlana Hazar Imam), the 49th hereditary Imam (spiritual leader) and direct descendant of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him and his family).
Muhammad is not completely a fiction of later pious imagination, as some have implied; we know that someone named Muhammad did exist, and that he led some kind of movement. And this fact, in turn, gives us greater confidence that further information in the massive body of traditional Muslim materials may also be rooted in historical fact. At the Origins of Islam, 53 While it has become popular to question the very existence of Prophet Muhammad and other major religious figures like Moses, Jesus, and Buddha, the historical evidence for Prophet Muhammad existing and living in 7th century Arabia is vast and well documented.
Several examples of the earliest sources documenting the existence and mission of Prophet Muhammad are summarized below: There is no doubt that Mohammed existed, occasional attempts to deny it notwithstanding. It thus conveys the impression that he was actually leading the invasions…If such a revised date is accurate, the evidence of the Greek text would mean that Mohammed is the only founder of a world religion who is attested in a contemporary source.
But in any case, this source gives us pretty irrefutable evidence that he was a historical figure. A Syrian manuscript folio examined by W. Another Syrian manuscript mentions Muhammad and the Arab conquests and this also comes from the year AD — 2 years after Muhammad died. The writing of the Syrian Christian Thomas the Presbyter in testifies that Muhammad existed and led a movement.
That is just 8 years after his death: The difficulty is in deciding what is, and what is not, factual. At the Origins of Islam, 53 5. Not only does it mention Muhammad by name, but it mentions and describes Muhammad as a prophet and various events in his life and the life of his community.
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Battle of Karbala, Brooklyn Museum Husayn, Ali’s younger son and brother to Hasan, initially resisted calls to lead the Muslims against Muawiyah and reclaim the caliphate. Yazid asked Husayn to swear allegiance bay’ah to him. Ali’s faction, having expected the caliphate to return to Ali’s line upon Muawiyah’s death, saw this as a betrayal of the peace treaty and so Husayn rejected this request for allegiance.
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